USING THE APSA FORMAT
The APSA Style Manual for Political Science, revised August 2006, is published by the American Political Science Association as a guide for political scientists and other authors who wish to write and submit an article for publication in one of the APSA’s journals. It follows the Chicago Manual of Style and contains detailed instructions and examples for manuscript preparation, including reference lists.
IN TEXT (parenthetical citations)
• Follow author-date citation method (i.e., author's last name and publication year).
Taylor (2000) analyzed polling data ..
In a recent study of polling data (Taylor 2000) ...
In 2000, Taylor evaluated polling data ...
Several studies (Taylor 2000; Juarez 2002; Peters & Lester 2004) show that ...
According to Taylor (2000, 24), “as society continues to undergo...”
• List all references cited in the text, alphabetically by author’s last name.
• Note that personal communications (i.e., letters, memos, telephone conversations, interviews, E-mail, discussion groups, etc.) are cited in text or in notes only.
• Use authors’ last names, first names (and middle initials, if available); for books, use “et al” to credit fourth through last authors.
• Cite electronic journals, web sites and other electronic publications.
Gates, Robert M. 1997. From the shadows: the Ultimate Insider's Story of Five
Presidents and How They Won the Cold War. New York: Touchstone.
Mitchell, T. R., & John Larson. 1987. People in organizations: An introduction to
organizational behavior 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Manley, William A. & Sigrid Roteutscher. 2007. Social Capital and Associations in
European Democracies: A Comparative Analysis. New York: Routledge.
Article or Chapter in an Edited Book
Levine, Charles H. 1990. “Human Resource Erosion and the Uncertain Future of the
U.S. Civil Service.” Frederick S. Lane, ed. Current Issues in Public Administration
(pp. 51–84). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 329-353.
Encyclopedia Article, with author
Buenger, Walter L. and James Alex Baggett. 1996. “Constitutional Union Party.” The
New Handbook of Texas. Vol. 2, p. 286-287. Austin: Texas State Historical
Eisenhower, Dwight D. 1970. The Papers of Dwight David Eisenhower. 21 vols. Eds.
Alfred D. Chandler, Jr. and Stephen E. Ambrose. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.
Munger, Frank J. 1955. “Two-Party Politics in the State of Indiana.” Ph.D. diss.
GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS AND LAWS
U.S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of Census. 2006. Statistical Abstract of the
United States. Washington, D.C.: Department of Commerce.
U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. 1956. The Mutual Security Act.
84th Cong., 2d sess., S. Rept. 2273.
Baker v. Carr. 1962. 369 U.S. 186. Law or Statute
Administrative Procedure Act. 1946. Statutes at Large. Vol. 60, sec. 10, p. 243.
U.S. Department of State. 1963. Nuclear Weapons Test Ban, 5 August. TIAS no. 5433.
U.S. Treaties and Other International Agreements, vol. 14, pt. 3.
Gottfredson. L.S. 1980. How Valid Are Occupational Reinforcer Pattern Scores?
Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University. ERIC, ED 182 465.
Journal Article, One Author
Aldrich, John H. 1980. “Dynamic Model of Presidential Nomination Campaigns.”
American Political Science Review 74 (September): 651-69.
Prufer, Olaf. 1964. “The Hopewell Cult.” Scientific American, December, 13-15.
Daily Newspaper Article, No Author
Sacramento Bee. 2004. “Eyes on Sudan: Victims of Racist Repression Need Help Now.”
Newspaper Article from the Web
Balz, Dan. 2007. ”Mixed Reviews for Clinton in Iowa.” Washington Post, January 29.
(January 29, 2007).
Journal Article from a Database
Brzoska, Michael. 2003. “From Dumb to Smart? Recent Reforms of U.N. Sanctions.”
Global Governance 9 (October-December): 519-535. Academic Search Premier
(September 27, 2005).
Document from a Web Site
King. Gary, Michael Tomz, and Jason Wittenberg. 1998. “Making the Most of Statistical
Analyses: Improving Interpretation and Presentation.” September 7.
http://gking.harvard.edu/preprints.shtml (October 22, 1988).
Document from a Web Site, without an author or date
Death Penalty Information Center. 2005. “Crimes Punishable by the Death Penalty.”
http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/article.php?did=144&scid=10 (January 29,