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UCOR 3600-07: National Security

Research guide for UCOR 3600-07: National Security (Prof. Audrey Hudgins)

Citing

Looking for RefWorks?

RefWorks is a citation manager with a web-based interface. Click here to access RefWorks. For additional info, see this RefWorks guide (pdf).

What is a citation?

A citation identifies for the reader the source of the origin for an idea, information, or image that is referred to in a work. A basic citation includes the author, title and publication information for the source. Other elements are added to help the reader find the original work.

Example Book Citation
Barreca, Regina. They Used to Call Me Snow White…But I Drifted: Women's Strategic Use of Humor. New York: Viking, 1991.

Example Article Citation
Kuska, B. “A Tale of Too Witty? Using Whimsy to Name Fringe Genes."
Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1998 Oct; 89 (19): 1396-7

Why cite?

  • Give credit to your sources. Be fair to other authors. Ideas or information which you take from another author or source should be acknowledged through your citations.

Avoiding Plagiarism

  • Give yourself credit. When you cite your sources, you show evidence of your own research.
  • Give your reader the opportunity to build on your work. Readers may want to follow-up on some of your source material. A good citation will enable a reader to find this material more easily.

What do you need to cite?

In general:

  • Quoting. Are you quoting two or more consecutive words from a source? Then the original source should be cited and the words or phrase placed in quotes. Use quotes when you want to convey to the reader the language of the original text.
  • Paraphrasing. If an idea or information comes from another source, even if you put it in your own words, you still should credit the source. Be careful when you paraphrase to reflect your own writing style, not the original author.
  • General Knowledge vs. Unfamiliar Knowledge. You do not need to cite material which is accepted common knowledge. You would not have to cite the fact that Big Ben was in London, but you would have to cite little known facts about Big Ben, e.g. dimensions of the tower, who it was named after. If in doubt whether your information is common knowledge or not, cite it.
  • Formats. When we think of citing sources, we usually think of books and articles. However, if you use material from web sites, films, music, laboratory manuals, lecture notes, special application software, graphs, tables, etc… you will also need to cite these sources.

For more on when to cite:

How do you cite?

Different fields have different conventions for citing sources. Always check with your instructor to see what citation format is appropriate for your course. The most common citation formats are: APA (American Psychological Association), MLA (Modern Language Association) and the Chicago Manual of Style or Turabian. Some of the other formatting conventions are listed after the brief descriptions for these three styles. Whichever style you choose, be sure to be consistent and include all of the information you need to document your source.

For brief in-text references (see below for more detailed references):

APA

Author-date

  • Barreca (1991) states that “For women, humor occupies a different space emotionally than it does for men.
  • “For women, humor occupies a different space emotionally than it does for men” (Barreca, 1991).

MLA

Author-page

  • Barreca states that “For women, humor occupies a different space emotionally than it does for men” (11).
  • “For women, humor occupies a different space emotionally than it does for men” (Barreca 11).

CHICAGO/Turabian

Footnote entry (no bibliography or shortened bibliography)

  • 1. Regina Barreca, They Used to Call Me Snow White…But I Drifted: Women's Strategic Use of Humor. (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1991),11.

Footnote entry (full bibliography)

  • 1. Barreca, They Used to Call Me Snow White, 32.

For more examples:

Citing a Book and an Article in the References section.

APA. American Psychological Association.
Used in nursing, social sciences, education, psychology.

A citation style which uses parentheses in text (author-date) instead of footnotes or endnotes, this format is popular in those disciplines where the date of the work, its currency, is significant to the reading of the text. Sources are listed at the end of the text in a section called References.

Reference List

Books
Kidner, J. (1972). The Kidner Report: a statistical look at bureaucracy at the
paper clip and stapler level. Washington, D.C.: Acropolis Books
Articles from a print journal
Heydt-Stevenson, J. (2000). "Slipping into the ha-ha”: bawdy humor and body
politics in Jane Austen’s novels. Nineteenth-Century Literature, 55 (3), 309-340.

 

MLA. Modern Language Association.
Used in the humanities

MLA uses the author’s last name and a page reference parenthetically placed in the text rather than footnotes or endnotes. Unlike APA, which is used in subject areas where the timeliness of the information is often critical, disciplines which use MLA can often cite works which are not current. Sources listed at the end of the text are in a section called Works Cited.

Works Cited

Books
Kidner, John. The Kidner Report: a Satirical Look at Bureaucracy at the
Paper Clip and Stapler Level. Washington, D.C.: Acropolis Books, 1971. (Book)
Articles
Heydt-Stevenson, Jill. “Slipping into the Ha-Ha”: Bawdy Humor and Body
Politics in Jane Austen’s Novels.” Nineteenth Century Literature 55 (3)
(2000): 309-340. (Journal Article)

For more information:

Check these sites for additional examples on how to use MLA:

Chicago Manual of Style
Used in the professional world of publishing for all subject areas.

Two styles of documentation are allowed in this style, but footnotes or endnotes with a bibliography is more common. The other option is parenthetical reference/reference list similar to APA.

If using footnotes/endnotes, the first time a source is used as an endnote, it is given a full citation. Subsequent citations are abbreviated. The endnote cites the author’s name first name and then family name. Notes at the bottom of page are footnotes, at the end of the text are called endnotes. In the bibliography, the author’s family name is first.

Book
Bibliography:
Kidner, John. The Kidner Report: a Satirical Look at Bureaucracy at the Paper
Clip and Stapler Level. Washington, D.C.: Acropolis Books, 1972.
Note:
1John Kidner. The Kidner Report: a Satirical Look at Bureaucracy at the
Paper Clip and Stapler Level. Washington, D.C.: Acropolis Books, 1972, 24.
Article
Bibliography:
Heydt-Stevenson, Jill. “Slipping into the Ha-Ha”: Bawdy Humor and Body Politics
in Jane Austen’s Novels,” Nineteenth-Century Literature 55, Issue 3 (2000): 309-340.
Note:
1Jill Heydt-Stevenson, “Slipping into the Ha-Ha”:Bawdy Humor and Body
Politics in Jane Austen’s Novels,” Nineteenth-Century Literature 55, Issue 3 (2000): 314.

For more information: Chicago Manual of Style 15th Edition Online

See also:

Check these sites for additional examples of Chicago format:

Turabian

Based on the Chicago Manual of Style, this style is recommended for student papers in many subject areas. Used in history and theology. Like CHICAGO, the first time a source is used as an endnote, it is given a full citation. Subsequent citations are abbreviated. The endnote cites the author’s name first name and then family name. Notes at the bottom of page are footnotes, at the end of the text are called endnotes. In the bibliography, where all of the sources are listed, the author’s family name is first. Remember: in this style, indent the second line of the citation 5 spaces.

Generally considered notes style of citation where footnotes are used at the end of the page, but this style also has provisions for author-date documentation with reference.

Book
Bibliography:
Kidner, John. The Kidner Report: a Satirical Look at Bureaucracy at the Paper
Clip and Stapler Level. Washington, D.C.: Acropolis Books, 1972.
Footnote:
1John Kidner. The Kidner Report: a Satirical Look at Bureaucracy at the
Paper Clip and Stapler Level. (Washington, D.C.: Acropolis Books, 1972). 24
Article
Bibliography:
Heydt-Stevenson, Jill. “Slipping into the Ha-Ha”: Bawdy Humor and Body Politics
in Jane Austen’s Novels,” Nineteenth-Century Literature 55, Issue 3 (2000): 309-340.
First Note:
1Jill Heydt-Stevenson, “Slipping into the Ha-Ha:Bawdy Humor and Body
Politics in Jane Austen’s Novels,” Nineteenth-Century Literature 55, Issue 3 (2000): 314.

For more information:

Check these sites for additional examples of Turabian format:

How do you cite an internet source?

(Remember standards are still evolving)

APA
Author. (Publication date). Title. Retrieval statement: complete URL

Avery, S., & Masciadrelli, J. (2003, April) Peep Research: A study of small fluffy
creatures and library usage. April 2003. Retrieved June 21, 2003 from http://www.millikin.edu/staley/fluff/peep_research.html

For more information:

MLA
Author / Editor. Title of Homepage. Publication date, Publisher. Medium. Date of access.

Avery, Susan and Jennifer Masciadrelli. Peep Research: A study of small fluffy
creatures and library usage. April 2003. Office of Fluffy Research, Staley Library, Millikin University. June 2003. Web. 21 Nov. 2009.

Chicago
Author's Last Name, First Name (if available). Title of Work.  Internet address 

Avery, Susan and Jennifer Masciadrelli. Peep Research: A Study of Small
Fluffy Creatures and Library Usage. http://www.millikin.edu/staley/fluff/peep_research.html

Turabian
Author, Title in Roman and in quotations. Place: Publisher, URL and access date.

Avery, Susan and Jennifer Masciadrelli. " Peep Research: A Study of
Small Fluffy Creatures and Library Usage."Decatur, Il: Office of Fluffy Research, Staley Library, Millikin University, http://www.millikin.edu/staley/fluff/peep_research.html. [accessed 20, June 2009]

How do you cite a source from a library database?

APA

Author. (Publication date). Article title. Magazine title, [page numbers if available]. For journal articles, APA  now requires the use of  a unique number called a DOI. Some databases will have the DOI in the article record, some pdf's may also have the DOI. Go also to the journal website; you may find the DOI for the article there. If your searching results in no DOI, then include at end of the Article citation Retrieved from [source] database (name of database)

Example of journal article in database  with no DOI:
Banoff, S. I. (1994, June). Turkeys and chickens fear IRS audits. Journal of Taxation, p.380.Retrieved  from Proquest Research Library database.                                                                                                                                     (Use this format only if  a DOI is not available.  Check the database for the DOI, as well as the journal website).                                                                                                                                                       Example of journal article in database DOI found at  journal  website:  

Heydt-Stevenson, J.(2000). "Slipping into the ha-ha:" bawdy humor and body politics in Jane Austen's novels. Nineteenth Century Literature 55(3),314. doi:10.1525/incl.2000.55.3.01pol464 l.2000.55

For more information:

  • APA Style | Electronic References
  • Both Proquest and Ebscohost have icons "cite this" on the tool bar of your results list. Use these tools as a guide, but always check the suggested format from these sources.

MLA

Author’s last name, first name. “Title of Work.” Title of source and publication date: page numbers. Source. Database Name. Publishers. date researcher visited site. <electronic address or URL of the source>.

Example:
Harms, David. “Stand Aside Rubber Chicken.”  Alternatives Journal, 25.4 (1999): 48. Proquest Research Library Complete.  Web. 20 June 2009.

 

Chicago

Bibliography:

Author. “Article title.” Original source of article, date of original source, page numbers, URL of  database or URL with stable URL.

Example:
Harms, Dave. “Stand Aside Rubber Chicken,”  Alternatives Journal 46, no. 4 (1999): 48. http:// www. proquest.umi.com  or                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
Harms, Dave.  "Stand Aside Rubber Chicken,"  Alternatives Journal 46, no 4 (1999): 48. http://www.proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=47632341&sid=1&Fmt=2&clientid=19912&RQt=3098VName=PQDroquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=47632341&sid=1&Fmt=2&clientid=19912&RQt=3098VName=PQD

Footnotes:

Number of footnote. Author, “Article title,” Magazine or newspaper title, publication date, page numbers, database the article is available on; URL of specific article, date of visit to site.

Example:
3.Dave Harms. “Stand Aside Rubber Chicken.” Alternatives Journal. 46, no. 4 (1999):48. http:// www. proquest.umi.com.

For more information:

Turabian

Bibliography
Author (Last name first). “Article title.”Magazine or journal title, publication date, page numbers, stable URL of specific article in the database, date of visit to site.

Example:
Harms, Dave. “Stand Aside Rubber Chicken.”  Alternatives Journal. 46, no 4 (1999): 48.http:// www. proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=47632341&sid=1&Fmt=2&clientid=19912&RQt=3098VName=PQD [accessed 20 June 2009].

Footnote
Number of footnote. Author (First then last name), “Article title,” Magazine or newspaper title, publication date, page numbers, stable URL of specific article in the database, date of visit to site.

Example:
3.Dave Harms. “Stand Aside Rubber Chicken,” Alternatives Journal. 46, no 4 (1999): 48. http:// www. proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=47632341&sid=1&Fmt=2&clientid=19912&RQt=3098VName=PQD               [ accessed 20 June 2009].

For more information:

How do you cite in specific fields?

Anthropology
Art
Business
Chemistry
Education
Engineering
History
Political Science
Social Sciences
Sciences
(Council of Biology Editors)

Nursing
Physics
  • American Institute of Physics Publication Board. AIP Style Manual. 4th ed. New York, N.Y.: American Institute of Physics.: AMS, 1990.
  • Note: How to cite authors in this format: (Mary Atoms versus Atoms, Mary)
Humanities
Sociology/Social Work

Bibliographies, Footnotes, Endnotes and References

Bibliography - Cites works for additional reading or background reading in addition to cited works in text. Can have notes. Format is not used in APA

Reference List - APA style. Includes only those works which were cited in the text. Alphabetical listing. Author’s name is abbreviated, initials are given instead of the first name. The date follows. Source information in included in the citation, as well as the page numbers. For an internet source, add the retrieval date and the URL.

Endnotes - Appear at the end of the research paper on a separate page. Works are numbered and are listed sequentially to match their placement in the text.

Footnotes -  Appear at the bottom of page where the work is cited. Start footnotes four lines below the text.

Works Cited - Used in MLA format. Similar to the APA reference list. Includes only those works cites in the text. It appears on its own page at the end of the research paper. List works alphabetically by author (full name); title, source, date and give the page numbers of the work cited in the text. For internet sources, MLA recommends adding the access date and putting the URL in <>, e.g.<http://www.seattleu.edu/library>

What is an annotated bibliography?

Annotated bibliographies tell more about the work you are citing. An annotation can both describe and evaluate a source.

Annotated Bibliographies

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