Skip to Main Content
Lemieux Library
Lemieux Library

Citing Your Sources Guide

MLA Works Cited List - By Type

For more detailed information and examples, refer to the following resources:

*Note: the City of Publication should only be used if the book was published before 1900, if the publisher has offices in more than one country (which is most major publishers), or if the publisher is unknown in North America.

  • Format: Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. City of Publication, Publisher, Publication Date.
  • Example: Bennett, Brit. The Vanishing Half. New York, River Head Books, 2020.

Two Authors

When a book has two authors, order the authors in the same way they are presented in the book. Start by listing the first name that appears on the book in last name, first name format; subsequent author names appear in normal order (first name last name format).

  • Format: Last name, First name and First name Last name. Title of work. Publisher name, year.
  • Example: Kuang, Cliff and Robert Fabricant. User Friendly: How the Hidden Rules of Design are Changing the Way We Live, Work, and Play. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2019.

Three or more Authors

If there are three or more authors, list only the first author followed by the phrase et al. (Latin for "and others") in place of the subsequent authors' names. (Note that there is a period after “al” in “et al.” Also note that there is never a period after the “et” in “et al.”).

  • Format: Last name, First name, et al. Title of work. Publisher name, year.
  • Example: Wysocki, Anne Frances, et al. Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition. Utah State UP, 2004.

A corporate author may include a commission, a committee, a government agency, or a group that does not identify individual members on the title page. List the names of corporate authors in the place where an author’s name typically appears at the beginning of the entry.

  • Format: Corporation name. Title of work. Publisher, year.
  • Example: American Allergy Association. Allergies in Children. Random House, 1998.

When the author and publisher are the same, skip the author, and list the title first. Then, list the corporate author only as the publisher.

  • Format: Title of work. Publisher, year.
  • Example: Fair Housing—Fair Lending. Aspen Law & Business, 1985.

List by title of the book. Incorporate these entries alphabetically just as you would with works that include an author name. For example, the following entry might appear between entries of works written by Dean, Shaun and Forsythe, Jonathan.

  • Format: Title of work. Publisher, year.
  • Example: Encyclopedia of Indiana. Somerset, 1993.

To cite the entire edited anthology or collection, list by editor(s) followed by a comma and "editor" or, for multiple editors, "editors." This sort of entry is somewhat rare. If you are citing a particular piece within an anthology or collection (more common), see A Work in an Anthology, Reference, or Collection below.

  • Format: Editor last name, First name and editor Last name, First name, editors. Title of work. Publisher, year.
  • Example: Goodyear-Ka'opua, Noelani, Howes, Craig, Kamakawiwo'ole Osorio, Jonathan Kay, and Aiko Yamashiro, editors. The Value of Hawai'i 3: Hulihia, the Turning. University of Hawai'i Press, 2020.
  • Example: Perkins, Maureen, Ed. Locating Life Stories: Beyond East-West Binaries in (Auto) Biographical Studies. University of Hawai'i Press, 2012.

A Chapter from an Anthology, Reference, or Collection

Works may include an essay in an edited collection or anthology, or a chapter of a book. The basic form is for this sort of citation is as follows:

  • Format: Last name, First name. "Title of Essay." Title of Collection, edited by Editor's Name(s), Publisher, Year, Page range of entry.
  • Example: Harris, Muriel. "Talk to Me: Engaging Reluctant Writers." A Tutor's Guide: Helping Writers One to One, edited by Ben Rafoth, Heinemann, 2000, pp. 24-34.
  • Example: Bishop, Elizabeth. "One Art". Norton Anthology of Poetry, 5th ed., edited by Margaret ferguson, Mary Jo Salter, and Jon Stallworthy. W.W. Norton and company, 2005, pp. 1527-1528.

There are two types of editions in book publishing: a book that has been published more than once in different editions and a book that is prepared by someone other than the author (typically an editor).

A Subsequent Edition

Cite the book as you normally would, but add the number of the edition after the title.

  • Format: Last name of author, first name, and first name of author last name. Title of work. Edition., Publisher, year.
  • Example: Crowley, Sharon, and Debra Hawhee. Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students. 3rd ed., Pearson, 2004.

A Work Prepared by an Editor

Cite the book as you normally would, but add the editor after the title with the label "edited by."

  • Format: Last name of author, First name. Title of work, edited by editor First name Last name, publisher, year.
  • Example: Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre, edited by Margaret Smith, Oxford UP, 1998.

Note that the format for citing sources with important contributors with editor-like roles follows the same basic template:

...adapted by John Doe...

If you want to emphasize the work rather than the translator, cite as you would any other book. Add “translated by” and follow with the name(s) of the translator(s).

  • Format: Author last name, first name. Title of work. Translated by name (first name last name), publisher, year.
  • Example: Delisle, Guy. Factory Summers. Translated by Helge Dasher and Rob Aspinall, Drawn & Quarterly, 2021.

If you want to focus on the translation, list the translator as the author. In place of the author’s name, the translator’s name appears. Their name is followed by the label, “translator.” If the author of the book does not appear in the title of the book, include the name, with a “By” after the title of the book and before the publisher. Note that this type of citation is less common and should only be used for papers or writing in which translation plays a central role.

  • Format: Translator last name, first name. Title of work. By Author name (first name last name), publisher, year.
  • Example: Huie, Bonnie translator. Notes of a Crocodile. By Qiu Miaojin, New York Review of Books, 2017. 

When citing only one volume of a multivolume work, include the volume number after the work's title, or after the work's editor or translator. This example includes a historical work with a single name as author.

  • Format: Last name, first name. Title of work. Translated by First name Last name, vol #., publisher, date.
  • Example: Quintilian. Institutio Oratoria. Translated by H. E. Butler, vol. 2, Loeb-Harvard UP, 1980.

When citing more than one volume of a multivolume work, cite the total number of volumes in the work. Also, be sure in your in-text citation to provide both the volume number and page number(s)

  • Format: Last name, First name. Title of work. Translated by First name Last name, Publisher, year. Number of vols.
  • Example: Quintilian. Institutio Oratoria. Translated by H. E. Butler, Loeb-Harvard UP, 1980. 4 vols.

If the volume you are using has its own title, cite the book without referring to the other volumes as if it were an independent publication.

  • Format: Author last name, first name. Title of work. Publisher, year.
  • Example: Churchill, Winston S. The Age of Revolution. Dodd, 1957.

List works alphabetically by title. (Remember to ignore articles like A, An, and The.) Provide the author’s name in last name, first name format for the first entry only. For each subsequent entry by the same author, use three hyphens and a period.

Example:

  • Nguyen, Viet Thanh. The Refugees. Grove Press, 2018.
  • ---. The Sympathizer. Grove Press, 2016.

Italicize “The Bible” and follow it with the version you are using. Remember that your in-text (parenthetical citation) should include the name of the specific edition of the Bible, followed by an abbreviation of the book, the chapter and verse(s). See the section on MLA in-text citations for more information.

  • Example: The Bible. Authorized King James Version, Oxford UP, 1998.
  • Example: The Bible. The New Oxford Annotated Version, 3rd ed., Oxford UP, 2001.
  • Example: The New Jerusalem Bible. Edited by Susan Jones, Doubleday, 1985.

Article in an online scholarly journal

MLA requires a page range for articles that appear in Scholarly Journals. If the journal you are citing appears exclusively in an online format (i.e. there is no corresponding print publication) that does not make use of page numbers, indicate the URL or other location information. If page numbers are included, add those in before the URL.

  • Format: Last name, first name. "Title of article". Title of journal, vol #, no. #, URL. Accessed day month year.
  • Example: Dolby, Nadine. “Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and Future Directions.” Social Work and Society: The International Online-Only Journal, vol. 6, no. 2, 2008, www.socwork.net/sws/article/view/60/362. Accessed 20 May 2009.

Article from an Online Database

Cite online databases (e.g. LexisNexis, ProQuest, JSTOR, ScienceDirect) and other subscription services as containers. Thus, provide the title of the database italicized before the DOI or URL. If a DOI is not provided, use the URL instead. Provide the date of access if you wish.

  • Format: Last name, first name. "Title of article." Title of journal, vol. #, no. #, date of publication, pp. page range. Title of online database, DOI or URL. Accessed date.
  • Example: Alonso, Alvaro, and Julio A. Camargo. “Toxicity of Nitrite to Three Species of Freshwater Invertebrates.” Environmental Toxicology, vol. 21, no. 1, 3 Feb. 2006, pp. 90-94. Wiley Online Library, https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.20155. Accessed 26 May 2009.
  • Example: Chowkwanyun, Merlin and Adolph L Reed. "Racial health Disparities and Covid-19: Caution and Context."The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 383,  no.3, 2020. p.201-203. ProQuest, http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp2012910. Accessed 25 May 2022.

Article in a Web Magazine

Provide the author name, article name in quotation marks, title of the web magazine in italics, publisher name, publication date, URL, and the date of access.

  • Format: Last name, First name. "Title of Article". Title of Web Magazine, date of publication, URL, accessed day month year.
  • Example: Bernstein, Mark. “10 Tips on Writing the Living Web.” A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 16 Aug. 2002, alistapart.com/article/writeliving. Accessed 4 May 2009.

A Page on a Website

For an individual page on a Web site, list the author or alias if known, followed by an indication of the specific page or article being referenced. Usually, the title of the page or article appears in a header at the top of the page. Follow this with the information covered above for entire Web sites. If the publisher is the same as the website name, only list it once.

Example: Lundman, Susan. “How to Make Vegetarian Chili.” eHow, www.ehow.com/how_10727_make-vegetarian-chili.html. Accessed 6 July 2015.

Example: “Athlete's Foot - Topic Overview.” WebMD, 25 Sept. 2014, www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/tc/athletes-foot-topic-overview.

Citations for e-books closely resemble those for physical books. Simply indicate that the book in question is an e-book by putting the term "e-book" in the "version" slot of the MLA template (i.e., after the author, the title of the source, the title of the container, and the names of any other contributors).

  • Format: Author last name, first name. Title of work. E-book, publisher, year.
  • Example: Aldama, Frederick Luis. Latinx Ciné in the Twenty-First Century. E-book, University of Arizona Press, 2019

MLA Reference List for Digital & Social Media

@Username. "Full text of tweet." Twitter, Day month year posted, time posted, URL.

Example: @SketchesbyBoze. "“Why are you reading books when the world is burning?” Because you weren’t made to binge the world’s destruction and there’s good in pursuing joy where you can find it. Fiction arms us with precisely the tools we need to overcome the crisis into which our world has fallen." Twitter, 19 March 2022, 12:54 PM, https://twitter.com/SketchesbyBoze/status/1505271621820596227

Username. "First several words of Tumblr post (if any, otherwise omit)..." Title of Tumblr blog, Day month year posted, time posted (if available), URL.

Example: Cheshirelibrary. "I hang out at the library with all the other cool cats." Cheshirelibrary, 19 March 2022, 1:28 PM, https://cheshirelibrary.tumblr.com/post/189230463800

Lastname, Firstname [or username or page name]. "first several words of a facebook post..." Facebook, Day month year posted, time posted [if available], URL.

Example: Alfie Scholars. "ScholarWorks at Seattle University Features Alfie Scholars’ Conference Papers." Facebook, 7 March 2022, https://www.facebook.com/alfiescholars/posts/4748284058554312.

Lastname, Firstname [or single username]. "Title of YouTube Video." Publishing Website, Day month year posted, URL.

Example: Seattle University. "Seattle University - Lemieux Library and McGoldrick Learning Commons Time-lapse." YouTube, 13 Sep 2010, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aY2aemMVuJI.

Author [@Username]. “Caption of video.” TikTok, Date Posted, URL.

*Notes: Include author’s real name if known then their username in brackets unless their username is very similar to their real name. If there is no caption for the video, create a description to use in place of a title. Write it in plain text (no quotes/no italics), and capitalize only the first word and any proper nouns.

Example: Remillard, Lisa [@todaysnews]. “#tax #unemployment #stimulus I asked the IRS, YOUR most most popular questions.” TikTok, 5 Feb. 2021, vm.tiktok.com/ZMedmreM3/.

Example 2:  @cbsnews. “How NASA's Mars Perseverance rover will make the most difficult landing ever attempted on the red planet. #news #mars #nasa #edutok #stepbystep.” TikTok, 5 Feb. 2021, vm.tiktok.com/ZMedm1xu8/.

Lastname, Firstname [or single username]. (handle). "First several words of Instagram post (if any)..." Instagram, Day month year posted, URL.

Example: Cincylibrary. "Libraries (and coffee) rule the world." Instagram, 5 Mar 2022, https://www.instagram.com/p/CauitTKMLph/

Get Research Help

chat loading...

Student Engagement Librarian