For more detailed information and examples, refer to the following resources:
*Note: the City of Publication should only be used if the book was published before 1900, if the publisher has offices in more than one country (which is most major publishers), or if the publisher is unknown in North America.
When a book has two authors, order the authors in the same way they are presented in the book. Start by listing the first name that appears on the book in last name, first name format; subsequent author names appear in normal order (first name last name format).
Three or more Authors
If there are three or more authors, list only the first author followed by the phrase et al. (Latin for "and others") in place of the subsequent authors' names. (Note that there is a period after “al” in “et al.” Also note that there is never a period after the “et” in “et al.”).
A corporate author may include a commission, a committee, a government agency, or a group that does not identify individual members on the title page. List the names of corporate authors in the place where an author’s name typically appears at the beginning of the entry.
When the author and publisher are the same, skip the author, and list the title first. Then, list the corporate author only as the publisher.
List by title of the book. Incorporate these entries alphabetically just as you would with works that include an author name. For example, the following entry might appear between entries of works written by Dean, Shaun and Forsythe, Jonathan.
To cite the entire edited anthology or collection, list by editor(s) followed by a comma and "editor" or, for multiple editors, "editors." This sort of entry is somewhat rare. If you are citing a particular piece within an anthology or collection (more common), see A Work in an Anthology, Reference, or Collection below.
A Chapter from an Anthology, Reference, or Collection
Works may include an essay in an edited collection or anthology, or a chapter of a book. The basic form is for this sort of citation is as follows:
There are two types of editions in book publishing: a book that has been published more than once in different editions and a book that is prepared by someone other than the author (typically an editor).
A Subsequent Edition
Cite the book as you normally would, but add the number of the edition after the title.
A Work Prepared by an Editor
Cite the book as you normally would, but add the editor after the title with the label "edited by."
Note that the format for citing sources with important contributors with editor-like roles follows the same basic template:
...adapted by John Doe...
If you want to emphasize the work rather than the translator, cite as you would any other book. Add “translated by” and follow with the name(s) of the translator(s).
If you want to focus on the translation, list the translator as the author. In place of the author’s name, the translator’s name appears. Their name is followed by the label, “translator.” If the author of the book does not appear in the title of the book, include the name, with a “By” after the title of the book and before the publisher. Note that this type of citation is less common and should only be used for papers or writing in which translation plays a central role.
When citing only one volume of a multivolume work, include the volume number after the work's title, or after the work's editor or translator. This example includes a historical work with a single name as author.
When citing more than one volume of a multivolume work, cite the total number of volumes in the work. Also, be sure in your in-text citation to provide both the volume number and page number(s)
If the volume you are using has its own title, cite the book without referring to the other volumes as if it were an independent publication.
List works alphabetically by title. (Remember to ignore articles like A, An, and The.) Provide the author’s name in last name, first name format for the first entry only. For each subsequent entry by the same author, use three hyphens and a period.
Italicize “The Bible” and follow it with the version you are using. Remember that your in-text (parenthetical citation) should include the name of the specific edition of the Bible, followed by an abbreviation of the book, the chapter and verse(s). See the section on MLA in-text citations for more information.
Article in an online scholarly journal
MLA requires a page range for articles that appear in Scholarly Journals. If the journal you are citing appears exclusively in an online format (i.e. there is no corresponding print publication) that does not make use of page numbers, indicate the URL or other location information. If page numbers are included, add those in before the URL.
Article from an Online Database
Cite online databases (e.g. LexisNexis, ProQuest, JSTOR, ScienceDirect) and other subscription services as containers. Thus, provide the title of the database italicized before the DOI or URL. If a DOI is not provided, use the URL instead. Provide the date of access if you wish.
Article in a Web Magazine
Provide the author name, article name in quotation marks, title of the web magazine in italics, publisher name, publication date, URL, and the date of access.
A Page on a Website
For an individual page on a Web site, list the author or alias if known, followed by an indication of the specific page or article being referenced. Usually, the title of the page or article appears in a header at the top of the page. Follow this with the information covered above for entire Web sites. If the publisher is the same as the website name, only list it once.
Example: Lundman, Susan. “How to Make Vegetarian Chili.” eHow, www.ehow.com/how_10727_make-vegetarian-chili.html. Accessed 6 July 2015.
Example: “Athlete's Foot - Topic Overview.” WebMD, 25 Sept. 2014, www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/tc/athletes-foot-topic-overview.
Citations for e-books closely resemble those for physical books. Simply indicate that the book in question is an e-book by putting the term "e-book" in the "version" slot of the MLA template (i.e., after the author, the title of the source, the title of the container, and the names of any other contributors).
@Username. "Full text of tweet." Twitter, Day month year posted, time posted, URL.
Username. "First several words of Tumblr post (if any, otherwise omit)..." Title of Tumblr blog, Day month year posted, time posted (if available), URL.
Lastname, Firstname [or username or page name]. "first several words of a facebook post..." Facebook, Day month year posted, time posted [if available], URL.
Lastname, Firstname [or single username]. "Title of YouTube Video." Publishing Website, Day month year posted, URL.
Author [@Username]. “Caption of video.” TikTok, Date Posted, URL.
Lastname, Firstname [or single username]. (handle). "First several words of Instagram post (if any)..." Instagram, Day month year posted, URL.