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Citing Your Sources Guide

Chicago/Turabian Reference List - By Type

If you have a specific question or need more information to cite something correctly, please try one of the following resources:

  • Purdue OWL Writing Lab Chicago Manual of Style 17th ed.
  • In addition to consulting The Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition) for more information, students may also find it useful to consult Kate L. Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (9th edition). This manual, which presents what is commonly known as the "Turabian" citation style, follows the two Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) patterns of documentation but offers slight modifications suited to student texts.

Note the differences between a in-text note, and the corresponding bibliography entry:

  • Note format: Superscript #. First name last name, Title of work (Publisher city: Publisher, year of publication), page number.
  • Note example: 2. Jasmine Mans, Black Girl, Call Home (New York: Berkley, 2021), 95.

 

  • Bibliography entry format: Last name of author, first name. Title of work. City of publisher, Publisher, year of publication.
  • Bibliography entry example: Mans, Jasmine. Black Girl, Call Home. New York: Berkley, 2021.

Chapter from a single-authored book

  • Note format: Superscript #. First name last name, " Title of chapter," in Title of work (Publisher city: Publisher name, year), page number. 
  • Note example: 3. Gloria Anzaldúa, " How to Tame a Wild Tongue," in Borderlands: The New Mestiza - La Frontera (San Francisco: Aunt Lute Book Company, 1987), 53. 

 

  • Bibliography format: Last name, first name. "Title of chapter." In Title of work, page range. Publisher city: Publisher, year. 
  • Bibliography example: Anzaldúa, Gloria. " How to Tame a Wild Tongue." In Borderlands: The New Mestiza - La Frontera, 53-64. San Francisco: Aunt Lute Book Company, 1987.

Two or more authors should be listed in the order they appear as authors, and not necessarily alphabetically. Note the differences between the note and the bibliographic entry!

  • Note format: Superscript #. First name last name and first name last name, Title of work (Publisher city: Publisher, year), page range.
  • Note example: 2. Scott Lash and John Urry, Economies of Signs & Space (London: Sage Publications, 1994), 241-51.

 

  • Bibliographic entry formatLast name, first name, and first name last name. Title of work. Publisher city: Publisher, year.
  • Bibliographic entry example: Lash, Scott, and John Urry. Economies of Signs & Space. London: Sage Publications, 1994.

Sources that have no known author or editor should be cited by title. Follow the basic format for the note and bibliography entries, including whatever information you have available to you. 

  • Note format: Superscript #. Title of work. City of publication, if available, year of publication. 
  • Note example: 3. A True and Sincere Declaration of the Purpose and Ends of the Plantation Begun in Virginia, of the Degrees Which It Hath Received, and Means by Which It Hath Been Advanced. London, 1610.

Translated Works

  • Note entry format: Superscript #. First name last name of author, Title of work, trans. First name last name of translator (Publisher city: Publisher, year), page number.
  • Example: 3. Julio Cortázar, Hopscotch, trans. Gregory Rabassa (New York: Pantheon Books, 1966), 165.

 

  • Bibliography entry format: Last name of author, first name of author. Title of work. Translated by First name Last name of translator. Publisher city: Publisher, year.
  • Example: Cortázar, Julio. Hopscotch. Translated by Gregory Rabassa. New York: Pantheon Books, 1966.

Print Journal Articles (yes, they still exist)

  • Note format: Superscript #. First name Last name of author, "Title of Journal Article," Journal title volume #, no. # (year): page number.
  • Note example: 1. Amanda Palecek, “Sensational Shark Skin and Dazzling Dermal Denticles,” Journal of Experimental Biology 225, no. 7 (2022): 243.

 

  • Bibliography format: Last name, First name. "Title of Journal Article." Journal title volume #, no.# (year): page range.
  • Bibliography example: Palecek, Amanda. “Sensational Shark Skin and Dazzling Dermal Denticles.” Journal of Experimental Biology 225, no. 7 (2022): 243-244.

Electronic Journal Articles

If no page number exists for the journal article, just include the URL or the DOI if available. DOI in citations is formatted as doi:, all lowercase.

  • Note format: Superscript #. First name Last name, "Title of article," Journal title volume number, no. # (year): page number, accessed date, DOI or URL.
  • Note example: Debra Jared, Alyssa Pandolfo, "The Effect of Speaker Age on the Perception of Ironic Insults," Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology 75, no. 2 (2021): 146-154. Accessed March 31, 2022. doi:10.1037/cep0000222

 

  • Bibliography format: Last name, First name. "Title of article." Title of Journal volume #, no. # (year): page range. Accessed date. url.
  • Bibliography example: Jared, Debra, Pandolfo, Alyssa. " The Effect of Speaker Age on the Perception of Ironic Insults," Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology 75, no. 2 (2021): 146-154. Accessed March 31, 2022. doi:10.1037/cep0000222

Anthologies & Collections

  • Note format: Superscript #. First name last name, ed., Title of work (City of publication: Publisher, year), page number. 
  • Note example: 4. Simon Palfrey, Doing Shakespeare, rev. ed., Arden Shakespeare (London: Arden Shakespeare: Methuen Drama, 2011), 45.

 

  • Bibliography format: Last name, first name, Ed. Title of work. City of publication: Publisher, year. 
  • Bibliography example: Palfrey, Simon. Doing Shakespeare. Rev. ed. Arden Shakespeare. London: Arden Shakespeare: Methuen Drama, 2011.

Entries in Dictionaries & Encyclopedias: 

References to an alphabetically arranged work cite the item (not the volume or page number) preceded by s.v. (sub verbo, "under the word"; pl. s.vv.). If you have editor names, include those in your citation, and if not, begin with the title of the encyclopedia.

  • Note format: First name last name and First name Last name, eds. Title of encyclopedia, (publisher location: Publisher name, date), s.v. "Title of chapter."
  • Note example: Toyin Falola and Daniel Jean-Jacques, eds. Africa: An Encyclopedia of Culture and Society, (Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2016), s.v. "Congo."

 

  • Bibliography entry format: Last name and First name last name, eds. Title of encyclopedia, Publisher location: Publisher name, date, s.v. "Chapter name."
  • Bibliography example: Falola, Toyin and Daniel Jean-Jacques, eds. Africa: An Encyclopedia of Culture and Society, Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2016, s.v. "Congo."

Magazines

Magazines are usually cited by date only, even if numbered by volume and issue, which makes them different from journal articles. If the article has a doi, include that at the end of the citation, after the page numbers. **DOI in citations is formatted as doi:, all lowercase.

  • Note format: First name last name, " Title of article," Magazine title, month year of publication, page number.
  • Note example: Henry P. Huntington, " What do Land Acknowledgements Acknowledge?," Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, Jul/Aug 2021, 31. 

 

  • Bibliography format: Last name, first name. "Title of article." Magazine Title, month year of publication: Pages. 
  • Bibliography example: Huntington, Henry P. "What do Land Acknowledgements Acknowledge?". Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, Jul/Aug 2021, 31-35.

Newspapers

Citations may include "final edition," or "Sunday edition," etc. and section number such as sec. 1 or section title. A City name, if not part of the title of a local newspaper should be added, but not for national newspapers. The state name may be added in parenthesis if needed.

  • Note format: First name last name, " Title of article," Newspaper name (state in parenthesis if needed), Month day, year of publication: section number.
  • Note example: Kristin Lam, " Turlock Widow Sues Safeway for Husband's COVID-19 Death." Sacramento Bee, The (CA), June 5, 2020: 3B. 

 

  • Bibliography format: Last name, first name. " Title of article" Title of newspaper, Month day, year of publication: Section. 
  • Bibliography example: Lam, Kristin. Turlock Widow Sues Safeway for Husband's COVID-19 Death." Sacramento Bee, The (CA), June 5, 2020: 3B. 

Online Newspapers

Not that different from the above example, but you should include the url at the end, both in the note and in the bibliography entry.

**For four or more authors, only the first author is included in the note, followed by et al (which means "and others"). You include all authors' names in the bibliography entry.

  • Note format: First name last name, "Title of article," name of Newspaper, Month day, year of publication, url. 
  • Note example: Catherine Clase et al., " What's Next for Face Masks?," The Tyee (BC, Canada), Mar 31, 2022, https://thetyee.ca/Analysis/2022/03/31/What-Next-Face-Masks/. 

 

  • Bibliography format: Last name, first name. "Title of article." Name of newspaper, day month, year. url. 
  • Bibliography example: Clase, Catherine, Ken G. Drouillard,  Charles-Francois de Lannoy, and Scott Laengert. " What's Next for Face Masks?." The Tyee (BC, Canada), Mar 31, 2022.  https://thetyee.ca/Analysis/2022/03/31/What-Next-Face-Masks/. 

Videos/Films:

If you are referring to something viewed online, such as on Netflix, list the director as the author, and include an url at the end. You can include a timestamp in the note entry if you want your reader to view a specific scene or moment.

  • Note format: superscript #. Film Title, directed by Director first name Last name (Production Company or Distributor, year), timestamp(s), URL if available. 
  • Note example: 1. The Truman Show, directed by Peter Weir (Paramount Pictures, 1998), 1:31:15. https://www.netflix.com/watch/11819086.

 

  • Bibliography format: Director last name, First name, director. Film Title. Production Company or Distributor, Year, Film Length. URL if available.
  • Bibliography example: Weir, Peter, director. The Truman Show. Paramount Pictures, 1998. 1 hr., 43 min. https://www.netflix.com/watch/11819086.

Episode of TV show:

**If you are accessing the show via a streaming service rather than on physical media, you can replace everything after the airing information with the relevant URL. This is sometimes necessary information, in both television shows and films, especially if there are extended or remastered editions in circulation.

  • Note format: Superscript #. Title of work, season number, episode number, "Episode Title," directed/written/performed by First name, Last name, aired Month day, year, on Network Name, URL. 
  • Note example: 3. Better Call Saul, season 5, episode 8, "Bagman," directed by Vince Gilligan, aired April 6, 2020, on AMC. https://www.amc.com/shows/better-call-saul/season-5/episode-08-bagman

 

  • Bibliography format: Last name, First Name, dir. Title of Work. Season number, episode number, "Episode Title." Aired Month day, year, on Network Name. URL. 
  • Bibliography example: Gilligan, Vince, dir. Better Call Saul. Season 5, episode 8, "Bagman." Aired April 6, 2020, on AMC. https://www.amc.com/shows/better-call-saul/season-5/episode-08-bagman

Chicago/Turabian Citations for Digital & Social Media

Lastname, Firstname [or single username]. Twitter post. Month day, year (time posted). URL.

Example: @SketchesbyBoze.Twitter post. March 19, 2022 (12:54 PM). https://twitter.com/SketchesbyBoze/status/1505271621820596227

Username. Tumblr post. Month day, year posted (time posted, if available). URL.

Examples: Cheshirelibrary. Tumblr post. March 19, 20122 (1:28 PM).  https://cheshirelibrary.tumblr.com/post/189230463800

Lastname, Firstname [or single username]. Instagram post. Month day, year posted. URL.

Example: Cincylibrary. Instagram post. Mar 5, 2022.https://www.instagram.com/p/CauitTKMLph/

Lastname, Firstname [or single username]. "Title of YouTube Video." YouTube video, length of video, Month day, year posted. URL.

Example: Seattle University. "Seattle University - Lemieux Library and McGoldrick Learning Commons Time-lapse." YouTube video, 0:53, Sep 13, 2010. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aY2aemMVuJI

Lastname, Firstname. Facebook post. Month day, year posted. URL

Example: Alfie Scholars. Facebook post. March 7, 2022. https://www.facebook.com/alfiescholars/posts/4748284058554312

Lastname, Firstname [or username]. "Title or caption of Tiktok Video." Video, length of video, Month day, year posted. URL.

Example: FowlervilleLibrary. "We love our Coco-bean! #librarydog #library #librarytiktok #librariesoftiktok" Video, 0:36, June 17, 2021. https://www.tiktok.com/@fowlervillelibrary/video/6974795174287363333

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