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Lemieux Library

Sports Business Leadership

APA Style Guides

The Official APA Style website provides guidance of citing sources, formatting your paper, how to include in-text citations, including bias-free language, and more.

The Purdue Online Writing Lab is another good resource for citing sources in APA 7th edition.

Citing Business Resources in APA 7th Edition

While APA provides guidance for a number of sources, such as books or articles, it does not provide official guidance on many of the business sources of information you may encounter. The example citations below were created by a group of Business Librarians (Schemm, Dellenbach, Grisham, Hageman, Tingle, Trowbridge, & Wheatley, 2020) following the guiding principles of APA along with direction from APA's official style experts. 

If you need to cite a source and don't see it here, contact us for help!

Annual Report

Delta Air Lines, Inc. (2015, February 11). Form 10-K. http://ir.delta.com/

BMI Research

Note: Example when retrieved from ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry.

Fitch Solutions Group Limited. (n.d.). Mexico agribusiness report Q1 2020 [Industry profile]. ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry. http://login.proxy.seattleu.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.proxy.seattleu.edu/docview/2321248275?accountid=28598

Census Data

Note: Find the permalink to cite the Census table directly whenever possible, rather than the various visualization tools such as Census Business Builder which do not usually have permalink.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2017). Construction: Summary statistics for the US, states, and selected geographies (Table EC1723BASIC) [Data set]. U.S. Department of Commerce.

U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). Census business builder: Small business edition - 3.0.1 [Map showing restaurants in the Dane County, WI area and surrounding counties].  U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved June 18, 2020, from https://cbb.census.gov/sbe/#

Note: Include a retrieval date when information is designed to update frequently.

U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). QuickFacts: Madison city, Wisconsin. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved June 18, 2020, from https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/madisoncitywisconsin/LND110210

Company Website

Delta Air Lines, Inc. (2014). Corporate responsibility report. http://www.delta.com/content/dam/delta-www/about-delta/corporate-responsibility/2014_DeltaCRR_FINAL_WEB.pdf.

D&B Hoovers

Note: D&B Hoovers does not allow for permalinks. Instead, use the URL for the database: https://login.proxy.seattleu.edu/login?url=https://logon.onesource.com/?LogonUserID=RollingUserID

Analyst Report

Deutsche Bank. (2020, April 28). 3M: Under the mask [Analyst report]. Dun & Bradstreet.

Company Profile

Note: Include a retrieval date when information is designed to update frequently.

Dun & Bradstreet. (n.d.). Kohl's Corporation [Company profile]. Retrieved May 27, 2020, from https://login.proxy.seattleu.edu/login?url=https://logon.onesource.com/?LogonUserID=RollingUserID

Industry Profile

Note: Include a retrieval date when information is designed to update frequently.

Dun & Bradstreet. (n.d.). Space research & technology [Industry profile]. Retrieved June 29, 2020, from https://login.proxy.seattleu.edu/login?url=https://logon.onesource.com/?LogonUserID=RollingUserID

MarketLine. (2020, January). Home & garden products in the United States [Industry profile]. Dun & Bradstreet. https://login.proxy.seattleu.edu/login?url=https://logon.onesource.com/?LogonUserID=RollingUserID

SWOT Analysis

Dun & Bradstreet. (2019, December 6). Target Corporation SWOT analysis. https://login.proxy.seattleu.edu/login?url=https://logon.onesource.com/?LogonUserID=RollingUserID

Edgar

Pepsico Inc. (2016). Form 10-K 2015: Pepsico Inc. EDGAR. https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/77476/000007747616000066/pepsico201510-k.htm

eMarketer

Briggs, P., Dolliver, M., Kim, A., Koch, L., & Wurmser, Y. (2020, February). Canada digital habits by generation: Identifying key distinctions across age groups, from teens to baby boomers. eMarketer. https://content-na1.emarketer.com/canada-digital-habits-by-generation

First Research Industry Profiles

Note: Example when retrieved from ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry.

Dun & Bradstreet. (2019, May 27). Automotive repair & maintenance services [Industry profile]. ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry. http://login.proxy.seattleu.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.proxy.seattleu.edu/docview/2234465253?accountid=28598

Global Edge

Note: Include a retrieval date when information is designed to update frequently.

Michigan State University. (n.d.). Afghanistan: Introduction. GlobalEdge. Retrieved June 2, 2020, from https://globaledge.msu.edu/countries/afghanistan

Michigan State University (n.d.) Country comparator. GlobalEdge. https://globaledge.msu.edu

IBISWorld

Diment, D. (2019, December). Corporate wellness services (OD4621) [U.S. specialized industry report] IBISWorldhttps://www.ibisworld.com/

Marketline

Note: Example when retrieved from Business Source Complete.

MarketLine. (2020). Air freight in Australia [Industry profile]. Business Source Complete. http://search.ebscohost.com.proxy.seattleu.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=143487341&site=ehost-live&scope=site

MarketResearch.com Academic

Packaged Facts. (2019, January). Pet food in the U.S., 14th edition [Market report]MarketResearch.com Academic. https://www-marketresearch-com.proxy.seattleu.edu/academic/Product/15558245

Mergent Online

Note: Include a retrieval date when information is designed to update frequently. Mergent Online does not allow for permalinks. Instead, use the URL for the database: https://login.proxy.seattleu.edu/login?url=http://www.mergentonline.com

Mergent. (n.d.). Hain Celestial Group [Company profile]. Retrieved June 3, 2020, from https://login.proxy.seattleu.edu/login?url=http://www.mergentonline.com

Mergent. (n.d.). Hain Celestial Group: R. Dean Hollis [Executive bio]. Retrieved June 3, 2020, from https://login.proxy.seattleu.edu/login?url=http://www.mergentonline.com

Mintel

Failla, J. (2020, April). Quick service restaurants - US. Mintel. https://reports-mintel-com.proxy.seattleu.edu/display/986928/?fromSearch=%3Ffreetext%3DQuick%2520service%2520restaurants%2520

Passport

Note: Passport does not allow for permalinks. Instead, use the URL for the database: https://login.proxy.seattleu.edu/login?url=http://www.portal.euromonitor.com/Portal/Default.aspx

Homma, A. (2020, February 24). Apparel and footwear in the US [Country report]. Passport. https://login.proxy.seattleu.edu/login?url=http://www.portal.euromonitor.com/Portal/Default.aspx

Euromonitor. (2018, February 8). Population change as a megatrend driver [Briefing]. Passport. https://login.proxy.seattleu.edu/login?url=http://www.portal.euromonitor.com/Portal/Default.aspx

Note: Include a retrieval date when information is designed to update frequently.

Euromonitor. (n.d.). Apparel and footwear USA [Market sizes]. Passport. Retrieved May 20, 2020, from https://login.proxy.seattleu.edu/login?url=http://www.portal.euromonitor.com/Portal/Default.aspx

Euromonitor. (n.d.) Apparel and footwear dashboard: Store-based retailing [Chart]. Passport. Retrieved June 4, 2020, from https://login.proxy.seattleu.edu/login?url=http://www.portal.euromonitor.com/Portal/Default.aspx

ReferenceUSA

Note: ReferenceUSA does not allow for permalinks. Instead, use the URL for the database: https://login.proxy.seattleu.edu/login?url=http://www.referenceUSA.com

Company profiles

Note: If the title of the company profile is sufficiently unique to identify the company profile (i.e. there is only one of that company in that city & state), then the company name with city is the title. Include a retrieval date when information is designed to update frequently.

Infogroup. (2020, June). Jackson Hewitt Tax Svc-Walmart, Kenai, AK [Company profile]. ReferenceUSA. Retrieved June 26, 2020, from https://www.referenceusa.com

Note: If there are multiple locations of that business in that city/state, include the exact address in parentheses as a form of unique number identifier. Include a retrieval date when information is designed to update frequently.

Infogroup. (2020, June). Jackson Hewitt Tax Svc-Walmart (3101 A. St, Anchorage, AK) [Company profile]. ReferenceUSA. Retrieved June 26, 2020, from https://www.referenceusa.com

Company List or Directory

Note: Since there is no official title, create a description in square brackets, non-italicized, to describe how you compiled this data. See section 9.22 in the Manual. The square brackets in this case indicate that somebody else searching the resource cannot use these exact words to search for it; but they could figure out what you did.

Infogroup. (n.d.). [List of companies in Walworth county, Wisconsin with 5 or more employees]. ReferenceUSA. Retrieved May 26, 2020, from https://www.referenceusa.com

S&P NetAdvantage

Note: S&P NetAdvantage does not allow for permalinks. Instead, use the URL for the database: https://login.proxy.seattleu.edu/login?url=http://na.capitaliq.com/ip/SEAUNI

Standard & Poor’s. (2020). Restaurant Brands International [Company profile]S&P NetAdvantage. https://login.proxy.seattleu.edu/login?url=http://na.capitaliq.com/ip/SEAUNI

Standard & Poor’s. (2020). Transaction screening: Bankruptcy announcement date 5/20/2020 - 5/27/2020 [Data set]. S&P NetAdvantage. https://login.proxy.seattleu.edu/login?url=http://na.capitaliq.com/ip/SEAUNI

Industry profile

Scarola, C. & Ko, W. (2020, May). Aerospace & defense [Industry survey]S&P NetAdvantagehttps://login.proxy.seattleu.edu/login?url=http://na.capitaliq.com/ip/SEAUNI

SimplyAnalytics

Note: Since there is no official title, create a description in square brackets, non-italicized, to describe how you compiled this data. See section 9.22 in the Manual. The square brackets in this case indicate that somebody else searching the resource cannot use these exact words to search for it; but they could figure out what you did.

Look at the Variable Metadata or View Metadata section in order to get the Source information -- which agency collected the data. The Date is whatever year the data were collected.

SimplyAnalytics does not allow for permalinks. Instead, use the URL for the database: https://app-simplyanalytics-com.proxy.seattleu.edu/login.html

SimplyAnalytics. (2019). [% households consuming imported beer/ale: Drank in last 6 months, for ZIP codes 55416, 55401, and Minneapolis metro area] [Data set]. MRI Consumer Survey US. https://app-simplyanalytics-com.proxy.seattleu.edu/login.html

SimplyAnalytics. (2019). [Map of Minneapolis, MN metro with family income $200,000 and over]. Census US. https://app-simplyanalytics-com.proxy.seattleu.edu/login.html

SimplyAnalytics. (2019.) [% food - Snack/dessert ice cream & sherbet - Brand Haagen-Daaz, entire US] [Data set]. SimmonsLocal US. https://app-simplyanalytics-com.proxy.seattleu.edu/login.html

SimplyAnalytics. (2018). [Map showing # multimarket data - Leisure activities - Current level of interest in major league soccer (MLS) - Somewhat, for Minneapolis-St. Paul DMA]. Scarborough Local Insights. https://app-simplyanalytics-com.proxy.seattleu.edu/login.html

Statista

Statistics, dossiers, and reports

Look under the Source section for “Survey by” -- that is the author

Daniel Research Group. (2019, September). Unit shipments of mobile personal computers (PCs) and laptops in the United States, from 2013 to 2023 (in millions) [Chart]. Statista. https://www-statista-com.proxy.seattleu.edu/statistics/722361/united-states-mobile-pc-unit-shipments/

Anything without a named author:

Statista. (2020, May). Laptops - worldwide [Technology market outlook]. https://www-statista.com.proxy.seattleu.edu/outlook/13110/100/laptops/worldwide

Infographics

Armstrong, M. (2020, June 4). UK government approval on the slide [Infographic]. Statista. https://www-statista-com.proxy.seattleu.edu/chart/21902/uk-government-approval-timeline/

Value Line

Note: Look at the bottom of the company’s stock page for the dates of the PDF reports -- usually approximately quarterly. Those are the archived reports and should be the preferred date.

Value Line does not allow for permalinks. Instead, use the URL for the database: https://login.proxy.seattleu.edu/login?url=https://research.valueline.com/secure/dashboard

Value Line. (2020, May 22). Delta Air Lines. Value Line Investment Survey. https://login.proxy.seattleu.edu/login?url=https://research.valueline.com/secure/dashboard

Web Based Data Sets

Use a direct/permalink URL whenever available.

International Financial Statistics. (2020). Government finance: Japan 2013-2020 [Data set]. International Monetary Fund. https://www.imf.org

World Health Organization. (2020, June 2). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Situation report - 134. https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200602-covid-19-sitrep-134.pdf?sfvrsn=cc95e5d5_2

Bureau of Economic Analysis. (2020, May 28). Price indexes for personal consumption expenditures by major type of product and by major function. (Table 2.3.4U) [Data set]. United States Department of Commerce. https://apps.bea.gov/iTable/iTable.cfm?reqid=19&step=3&isuri=1&nipa_table_list=2013&categories=underlying

Eurostat. (2020). Area under organic farming [Data set]. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/products-datasets/-/sdg_02_40

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